Eye Anatomy and Physiology

Eye Anatomy and Physiology

The eye is the sensory organ of sight. It enables us to see, receive and sort out visual details. Only about one-sixth of the eyeball is visible. The remaining parts are covered by a protective coating of bones, muscles and fat.


The eye consists of 3 main parts:

  • eyeball
  • eye socket (orbit)
  • accessory structures

Anatomy & Physiology

Eye Anatomy and PhysiologyAll of the following parts work together to produce clear sight:

  1. The sclera- white part of the eye.
  2. The pupil- black hole at the center of the eye. Through this hole, light enters the eye.
  3. The iris- or colored part of the eye, located in the middle of the pupil. It regulates the light entering the eye by changing the size of the pupils.
  4. The cornea- a clear part at the front of the eye.It serves as a protective covering of the iris and the pupil. It allows the light to enter the eye.
  5. The lens- located behind the pupil, it focuses the light onto the retina.
  6. The retina- the inner lining at the back of the eye. Different cell layers detect light and switch it into electrical impulses.

How do we see?

The eye works in the same manner as a camera. It performs following routines so as to make images look clear and sharp.

  1. Light reflects off the shapes and objects we are monitoring
  2. Light rays enter the eye and it passes through the cornea
  3. The light passes through aqueous humor and enters the pupil
  4. The iris then fine-tunes the amount of light let into the eye
  5. The lens targets the light onto the retina and change in thickness to bend and refract the light rays. Now the light is translated into to a signal transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve.
  6. Upon receiving these signals/electrical impulses visual cortex of the brain transforms them into visual images.

Eye Anatomy and PhysiologySo, people and camera lenses both focus an image onto the photosensitive surface. On a camera, it’s focused on film or a sensor chip. When using our eyes, the light-sensitive surface is the retina on the inside of your eyeball. Also, both the eye and a camera can adjust the amount of light entering. On a camera, it’s performed with the aperture lens control, while in your eye, it’s done by the iris expansion and contraction.

Normal vision

Seeing clearly and sharply in the center of our surroundings, and blurry in the periphery is treated as normal vision.

Vision problems

Many types of eye conditions can cause eye problems and blurred vision. Depending on the severity of the condition eyesight can be corrected by eyeglasses, contact lenses, and in some cases surgery.


Regardless of being the smallest organs in the body, our eyes are the most important organs along with the brain. They perform one of the most valuable operations that people tend to rely on most- seeing.

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How To Treat Grandparents With Respect And Care

How To Treat Grandparents With Respect And Care

How To Treat Grandparents With Respect And CareAlong with their unconditional love, care, the luxury of play and bedtime stories, our grandparents marked our childhood. Now it’s time for us to give meaning to the winter of their lives and make them young and vibrant again. If they could make some time out of their busy schedules to simply be with us, we can do the same. But it will be even more precious now since you are enhancing their old days.

Make more time for fun and less for worry

Whenever you can make them enjoy your company. Even when things are not perfect keep them motivated, happy and loved. Kindly remind them of the fact that nothing lasts forever. Neither the hard times they are experiencing right now nor the rainbow in the sky. Evoke happy memories from your childhood when you used to spend more time together. It will stir carefree feelings at a drop of a hat.

Make the most of your joint walks

If possible, enjoy regular walks with your grandparents. It’s not just walking for health but also visiting places that your grandparents still find amusing. Make them feel like a tourist and you being their guide. Turn it into a time travel. Go to see their favorite town nooks once they cherish most being that a museum or a first date spot. On your way back meet up with their friends if they feel so or just go shopping and buy them a diary to treasure their experiences.

Help them to be more socially engaged

How To Treat Grandparents With Respect And CareGo on a quest for senior centers. This idea may be opportune because your grandparents can get started in making connections and friends. Also, they can play social games such as bingo, chess or lottery. Always start with things your grandparents loved in the past. You may as well enroll them in a workshop that will perfectly match their interests. They will explore and eventually unleash their creative side and have less time to think about the transience of life.

Make their home guest-ready at any time

Make yourself actively involved in household choirs and help out without being asked for. Help them with simple daily chores, from making beds, washing dishes, taking out the trash to weekly ones like doing the laundry, vacuuming, and dusting. They will feel more comfortable once their home is clean and organized.

Seek advice and listen carefully

Instead of consulting expert books ask your grandparents for the information you need to know. They are more experienced than most of the writers due to their immense life experience. You will avoid uninspiring and tedious tips by simply listening to their lighthearted and honest chatter. Ask them about their life philosophy, their major regrets or what they still want to achieve. The answers may bring you down a path you have never considered before. Your curiosity will make them feel appreciated and respected.

Keep their health in check

It is normal to get sick more often at old age. Help them to maintain regular appointments with their doctor. If they are unable to perform everyday hygiene tasks they do need extra support. Still, pursuing a hospice care as a last resort when preferable ones like a care person have failed. Above and beyond everything else they were our guardians when we needed them most so now is the time we nurture our relationship with them and care for them. Love them above all. If it weren’t for them you wouldn’t be here… think about it.

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Tips for Lowering Your Electric Bill

Tips for Lowering Your Electric Bill

Tips for Lowering Your Electric BillThere was a time and not so long ago when we were overwhelmed with pleasure while opening a mailbox tucked amid greenery at the end of our outdoor path. It was overcrowded with Birthday, Christmas, Wedding invitation cards, love letters and a few bills. But, as Bob Dylan says The Times They are A-changing’, and the first ones, these adorable memories, are now the last. So many different ciphers and no letters at all. Luckily we can still enjoy these memories and focus on how to at least reduce our “romantic” bills.

First of all,

That you are tired of steps, tips, and how toes techniques, I’ve already known. Thus I will provide you with a really short guide, helpful and applicable.

Low Investment Gadgets For Reducing Energy Waste And Bills

The U.S Department of Energy report revealed an amazing fact- 20% of our electric bills come from devices that are left plugged in when not in use! So mind the following:

Buy a triple plug power adaptor or a power strip. When electronics are not in use it’s much easier to turn them off all at once than to unplug every single appliance.  Thus, you will block vampire energy that sucks up home power.

Buy energy efficient appliances labeled with Energy Star. They save up to 50% on your electric bills and will pay for itself within a year since they utilize about half the energy of standard appliances.

Sealing your heating and cooling ducts save up to 20% of energy consumption. All you need to do is to use metal-backed tape or mastic ones and seal the seams and connections of ducts in the premises that constantly move air to- and- from such as basement, attic, garage etc

Higher Investment Energy Detectives That Pay Off In A Month/Year

Tips for Lowering Your Electric BillEnergy-efficient computer monitors

Not only do they show you how much electricity you are using but they also advise you on how to save it! Since average monthly electricity bill is around $128.34 and the common EE computer monitor’s price is $89 it really pays off!

Programmable thermostat

It saves money month after month. It makes automatic adjustments in temperature settings according to your own schedule and it can be controlled remotely.

Kill a Watt monitor

This is a very powerful and power reducing device. It will detect all your largest power-wasting appliances and give you the choice whether to switch them off for good or not.

Insulation of the house from the roof down to its foundation

Prior to this venture schedule a home energy audit so to make an in-depth assessment of your home’s energy use and of past utility bills. You will get back your investment money in a year.

No Investments Strategies Just Brainy Ones

  • Get into the habit of switching off all lights and appliances when not in use. This step is already mentioned but it bears repeating since it is the winner reason for high electricity bills.
  • Convert to LED bulbs. They save up to 75% energy.
  • Install dimmable light bulbs so that you can adjust light levels with a switch.
  • Shut the doors to rooms that are not in use.
  • Heat/Cool only the rooms you spent most of your time in.
  • Whenever possible wash your laundry in cold water and save up to $180 a year on energy costs alone.
  • Use central heating instead of gas fire. It will cut your power bills by a third.
  • Use a pressure cooker. It’s double faster than the oven.
  • Set up your thermostat in line with the outdoor temperature. Between 77 and 80° F in the summer and 64 to 68° F in the cold weather. Lowering your thermostat by only one degree will show 3% decrease in your electricity bill.

Follow these tips and enjoy cutting down your electricity bills!

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